Temporal Expressions – Research 09.10.14

I conducted some research into elements that will help me complete the Temporal Expressions task.

David Hockey and Joiners:


David Hockey, born 1937, is a British painter, draughtsman, printmaker and photographer. He is best known for use of vibrant colour, landscapes and portraits in his work. 

Hockey created photography work called “Joiners”.  Joiner photography uses two or more separately taken images to create a larger one by overlapping them physically or merging the photos together digitally in software such as Photoshop. (http://joinerphotography.com/). Hockey created these joiners because he became interested in how we turn a 3D world into a two dimensional image. He liked the way the technique allowed the audience to read space. 


The image above is Hockey’s most famous joiner called “Pearblossum Highway, 11th to 18th April 1986 No.2”. It depicts an American Highway and is made up from thousands of photographs. In real life the audience can explore the scene from corner to corner. 

Hockney had a great interest in Cubism and his works have strong links to Cubism.

Cubism is an art movement started by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. Dan. (2007). What is Cubism? An Introduction to the Cubist Art Movement and Cubist Painters. Available: http://emptyeasel.com/2007/10/17/what-is-cubism-an-introduction-to-the-cubist-art-movement-and-cubist-painters/. Last accessed 9th Oct 2014.

Cubism paintings are not supposed to be realistic or life like. After looking at the subject, an artist will put together fragments from different viewing angles into one complete paining.  

Below is an image of an example to Cubism. It is called “Violin and Candlestick” and was painted by Braque in 1910. 


Hockney’s motivation for producing Joiners was to introduce three elements which a single photograph cannot have: time, space and narrative. Space and Time are the two mains themes of Cubism. Hockey stated that a single photograph cannot represent time or narrative because it expresses a single moment.

Narrative is present from Hockney’s early works. An example of this is a piece of work named “My House, Montcalm Avenue (1982)"  which is a joiner that depicts a photographical journey through his house. 

An example of a time element to Hockney’s work is appears in Steve Cohen, Ian, Gary, Lindsay, Dough, Anthony, Ken (1982) and shows a groups of friends talking. Because all the friends are continuously talking and moving and also because there is a space of time between each photograph, the whole conversation is allowed to be seen by the audience in a similar fashion to a film.

Thirdly, Hockney uses elements of space within his Joiner work. An example of this is presented in Pearblossom Highway 1986 (find image in this blog post). In this joiner, the left side of the overall photograph shows scenic elements, to correspond to the fact that the passenger seat on the left, whilst on the drivers (right) side, the overall photograph shows elements associated with driving, such as road signs etc. 

  (2000). David Hockey: Photocollage. Available: http://h2g2.com/entry/A449921. Last accessed 9th Oct 2014.

Long exposure photography:

Long exposure involves using long duration shutter speed to sharply capture the stationary elements of image blurring, smearing or obscuring the moving elements. The paths of moving light sources become clearly visible.  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long-exposure_photography). Long exposure can be used to capture the effect of time on an image.

A few examples of long exposure photography are: 

Light Painting:


For this, it is recommended that the shutter speed is set between 11 to 30 seconds, the aperture is set between f/8 and f/32 and the ISO is set at 100 or 200.  (http://www.instructables.com/id/Light-Painting-Photography-For-Beginners/).

Motion Blur:


Slit Scan:


Short exposure photography:

Short exposure photography involves short duration shutter speeds and captures an instant of time, something that happens in a fracture of a second. 



Cinemagraphs are still photographs where a minor and repeated movement occurs. They are usually published as an animated GIF, and give the impression to the audience that they are watching a video.  They are commonly produced by taking a series of photographs or a video recording. Then, using software, the photos are then made into a loop of frames. The term was created by US photographers Kevin Burg and Jamie Beck.  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinemagraph)

Here is an example of a Cinemagraphs:


The Parallax Effect (2.5D):

The parallax effect is what happens when you create the illusion of depth with completely flat, two dimensional objects by moving background and foreground elements are varying speeds. Foreground objects move fastest, mid – ground slower and the far off back ground elements the slowest.  The end result is a still photograph within a video that appears three dimensional.  (http://blog.visual.ly/the-2-5d-effect-how-to-animate-photos-and-create-a-parallax-shift/). Here is an example of this effect. 


PARALLAX 2.5D / Demo Reel from Adam Eyster on Vimeo.


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